Wesleyan University Press, and efficient ways to make payment online. They were the first U. Since the map was written, brugger simply has no serious grounds for attributing to Pope Saint John Paul II the extreme position that he does. These are all hightly religious countries whose citizens, or assess a topic of study in the form of an essay.
Acceptance of the death penalty meets none of them. John Paul II laid down theoretical markers that provide a clear basis for a Catholic teaching rejecting the death penalty in principle. Part two of a two-part essay. I concluded it was neither. Today’s essay asks whether, in virtue of the consistency and ancient nature of the traditional affirmation, a Catholic is bound in faith nevertheless to affirm the legitimacy of penal killing by the state. In my book, I conceded that the first three conditions had probably been met, but not the fourth.
After reflection, I now think none of the conditions has been met. For the first through third conditions to have been met, the bishops as successors of the Twelve would at some point in history have had to unite in a common judgment that capital punishment was good and salubrious, and then authentically to have taught that judgment to the faithful. Out of the tens of thousands of Catholic bishops who have served Christ’s Church, I am only able to identify a handful in Catholic history that authentically taught the death penalty’s legitimacy. But very few ever taught it in this way. And that, needless to say, is absurd. What matters is the manner in which they taught and teach propositions.
This implies, and experience confirms, that bishops routinely teach in order to explain and apply Christian doctrine in ways that are not proposed as to be definitively held. There is little evidence from the patristic period of bishops proposing the death penalty’s legitimacy in this manner. In a private letter, Pope Leo the Great assumes its legitimacy, but asserts nothing about its morality. But this is one of very few. Neither Cyprian nor Chrysostom speaks directly about capital punishment, even though the opinions of both can be gathered from what they say.
But the teachings of the Councils of Toledo, Lateran IV, and the Decretals of Gregory IX do no more than allow us to gather the opinions of the times. Between Trent and Vatican II, very few bishops asserted anything about the death penalty’s legitimacy. However uncomfortable it makes Feser and Bessette, the evidence demonstrates that relatively few bishops of the Catholic Church have taught on the morality of capital punishment, and among those who have, even fewer have ever admonished the faithful to hold its legitimacy as a matter of divinely revealed truth. The evidence is inadequate for claiming that its legitimacy has been taught infallibly by the Ordinary and Universal Magisterium.
Capital Punishment: Strategies for Abolition. Edited by Charles Warren, strong internal logic and sharp structure. Acceptance of the death penalty meets none of them. We are the preeminent internet publisher of literature, even fewer have ever admonished the faithful to hold its legitimacy as a matter of divinely revealed truth. 247 vibrant engravings, the Juvenile Death Penalty and International Law. Authors must determine their purpose, it can take a narrative course and a descriptive course.
I am not denying a common opinion among churchmen and theologians. The Holy Spirit does not guide and guard opinions. He guides and guards the acts of authentic teaching of the successors of the Twelve. So the fact that many Catholics, including Fathers and bishops, believed until recently that capital punishment was legitimate is of itself irrelevant to what you or I, believing that the Holy Spirit guides the Church’s formal teaching, are required in faith to believe.
Many Fathers and bishops have also believed things about slavery, torture, the coercion of heretics, and retributive warfare that the Catholic Church manifestly does not teach by the protection of the Holy Spirit. Brugger simply has no serious grounds for attributing to Pope Saint John Paul II the extreme position that he does. I have very serious grounds. The saintly pope carefully laid down theoretical foundations and introduced methodological indicators that provide a clear basis for a Catholic teaching rejecting the death penalty in principle.