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Counselling and Psychotherapy began in the early 18th century. The shift in how society dealt with mental health issues came about primarily due to the advent of the popularisation of science through the beginning of the industrial revolution. Society became increasingly transient and anonymous and the responsibility for behaviour became from the individual rather than from the community as a whole. In the 1880’s Sigmund Freud developed a theory about the unconscious mind and went on to create psychoanalysis.
Many therapists have been influenced by Freud and gone on to develop his theories. Freud collaborated with a number of analysts and set up the Vienna Psychoanalytic society. Notable amongst these is Carl Jung who developed Psychodynamics and focussed on dream analysis. Alfred Adler who’s most famous concept was the inferiority complex and also Otto Rank who was the secretary of the society. F Skinner was also influenced by Freud’s work.
Maslow believed that there where a set number of needs which had to be met before the client was able to achieve self actualisation, a term meaning the client reaching their full potential. Carl Rogers was the main proponent of person centred therapy which began in the 1940’s. This approach was Humanistic and saw the client rather than the therapist as the expert of their life. Person centred therapy believes the client holds the answers and has the power of autonomy. The counsellor is there to help facilitate this process by use of the core conditions. This humanistic approach relies less on medical knowledge and training and more on lay analysis.
The principles of humanistic medicine are communication, respect and also an emotional connection between counsellor and their client. 2 Explain the philosophical basis of Person Centred Counselling. The basis of the person centred approach is an optimistic outlook of individuals and a belief that people have the ability and inner resources to be able to resolve their own issues and move forward in a positive direction. It believes that all humans are innately social and constructive beings and that we are all motivated to seek the truth. We also directed by our need for self esteem Each individual’s behavior is influenced by how they perceive themselves.
We are all trying to develop and be the best that we can be, and this process is guided by internal and external forces. By using the core conditions of Congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy the counsellor is able to develop a therapeutic relationship with the client. This relationship should be based on equality and the counsellor should provide a safe environment in which the client is empowered to explore their self perception and achieve greater self awareness. This self awareness will enable the client to become secure in their self concept and go on to enable them to fulfill their full potential. 3 Explain the key concept principles of Person Centred Counselling The main principles of Person Centred Counselling include a right to autonomy. No advice or guidance should be given by the counsellor as the client has the ability to self actualise and find their own answers.
The ability to discover themselves achieves beneficial long term results as the client will learn how to look at their own feelings and actions in the future and become self sustaining. Rogers demonstrates a 7 Stage process of change to attempt to clarify how the client moves forward during the counselling process. At the beginning of the counselling the client will feel defensive and rigid in their thoughts. Second World War, in 1950’s America. Psychoanalysis -Therapist is an expert. Behaviourism- Humans have no free will. A very different approach was pioneered by Carl Rogers in the 1940’s and 50’s with strong influences from Adler and Rank.
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